One of the most famous types of agricultural machines for harvesting grain are combine harvesters. In the process of this technology, several more operations take place simultaneously. Combine harvesters are rightly considered one of the most reliable methods of harvesting grain. There are three automated functions during harvesting: reapers, threshers and winders. Of course, the combine is not an ideal tool for a full grain harvest cycle, as it has its own characteristics.
What are combine harvesters?
Combine harvesters are a complex special-purpose machine that is used to sequentially perform the following technological operations: mowing crops, feeding them to a thresher, threshing seeds, cleaning the crop from various impurities, collecting cereals in a container and unloading them from a combine. In fact, this type of agricultural technology replaced a few simple machines, thanks to which farmers could save money (no need to buy several types of machines), space in the garage, and also improve the quality of the harvest (minimize losses).
The combine harvester consists of many elements and assemblies, the most important of which are: engine, driver’s cabin with controls and devices, harvesting hopper, fan, threshing drum, roller, cutting mechanism and screws. It is a self-propelled machine that aggregates the header – a device for cutting plants and placing them on rolls or feeding the mowed mass to the thresher. In addition to the classic reaper, this technique can work with other types of hanging tools, with which corn (grain and silage), sunflower, soybean, buckwheat, rice, panicles are harvested.
Combine harvesters cannot work under certain conditions
- This technique is not designed to work in the dark, so harvesting grain with a combine in the evening is simply impossible.
- The operation of the combine harvester directly depends on the weather conditions. Using the technique of collecting grain in the rain is also impossible.
- The combine will not be able to work in dew.
- In the event of heavy weeds in the fields, it is not possible to harvest grain with this special equipment.
Therefore, the combine harvester, although it is an advanced technique, is the most convenient and practical, but it will not work continuously.
Types of combine harvesters
There are a huge number of different types of combine harvesters, each of which is suitable for certain conditions and has its own advantages and disadvantages.
According to the principle of operation, combine harvesters are divided into:
- With single or double keyboard straw walker. This type of combine is classic and is the most used. It is one of the simplest and cheapest types of combines. Such harvesters are capable of operating under so-called difficult conditions, for example a high field grain range, which can be quite difficult with other types of combines.
- With rotary straw separator. These kinds of combine harvesters work quite fast. A similar technique is more effective in harvesting large crops. The main disadvantage of a rotary combine is energy consumption. Such a combine uses a large amount of fuel, so it is not always used for harvesting. The price of this type of combine is much higher than the others.
- Hybrid. This is one of the most popular options. This combine combines both a drum and a rotating motor, making this combine fast and clear. A hybrid combine harvester can work on a large acreage of field and is not afraid of morning dew. The price of such a combine is average, which allows you to actively use it during harvesting.
The principle of operation of the combine harvester
Direct harvesting with the use of combine harvesters includes cutting the stalks, threshing grain mass, cleaning the grain from impurities and collecting threshing products (grains, straw). The grain is collected in the combine’s hopper, and the straw is rolled into the field or crushed and collected on carts or spread over the field. All these operations are performed by the combine in one continuous operation.
Features of the selection of equipment for harvesting grain
When choosing the best option for harvesting machines, there are several points to consider:
- What crops will be harvested by the machine (this is determined by the type of header and additional tools that will be required for work)
- Combine technical parameters – power, type of threshing system, hopper capacity, weight and dimensions of the equipment, number of straw walkers, type of transmission, throughput, etc.
- Header width
- Percentage of crop losses
- Complete set
- Model and brand.
There are two other important points – price and condition. The cost of the combine harvester depends on its capabilities and technical characteristics, as well as the manufacturer. Rotary combine harvesters are more productive and, with a drum thresher, more versatile. Combine harvesters are distinguished by the operation of the threshing device. The high quality of operation allows the combine to be moved quickly across the field, set the correct harvester, which allows you to capture a wide part of the grain and quickly harvest the crop. In world practice, grain harvesting machines are produced in two directions: with a conventional thresher and with a threshing and separating device.